What is Boltzmann Machine?

Boltzmann machine is a network of symmetrically connected, neuronlike units that make stochastic decisions about whether to be on or off. Boltzmann machines have a simple learning algorithm that allows them to discover interesting features in datasets composed of binary vectors. The learning algorithm is very slow in networks with … Read More

What is Big Data?

Big data is a term for data sets that are so large or complex that traditional data processing application software is inadequate to deal with them. Challenges include capture, storage, analysis, data curation, search, sharing, transfer, visualization, querying, updating and information privacy. The term “big data” often refers simply to … Read More

What is Bias-variance trade-off

Bias-variance trade-off is a central problem in supervised learning. Ideally, one wants to choose a model that both accurately captures the regularities in its training data, but also generalizes well to unseen data. In statistics and machine learning bias-variance trade-off is the problem of simultaneously minimizing two sources of error … Read More

What is Bayesian statistics?

Bayesian statistics is a theory in the field of statistics in which the evidence about the true state of the world is expressed in terms of degrees of belief known as Bayesian probabilities. Such an interpretation is only one of a number of interpretations of probability and there are other … Read More

What is backpropagation?

Backpropagation or the backward propagation of errors is a common method of training artificial neural networks and used in conjunction with an optimization method such as gradient descent. The algorithm repeats a two-phase cycle, propagation, and weight update. When an input vector is presented to the network, it is propagated … Read More

What is Autoencoder?

Autoencoder is an artificial neural network used for unsupervised learning of efficient codings. The aim of an autoencoder is to learn a representation (encoding) for a set of data, typically for the purpose of dimensionality reduction. Recently, the autoencoder concept has become more widely used for learning generative models of … Read More

What is AUC – Area Under the Curve?

AUC stands for the Area Under the Curve. Technically, it can be used for the area under any number of curves that are used to measure the performance of a model, for example, it could be used for the area under a precision-recall curve. However, when not otherwise specified, AUC … Read More

What is ANOVA F-test?

Anova F-test in a one-way analysis of variance is used to assess whether the expected values of a quantitative variable within several pre-defined groups differ from each other. For example, suppose that a medical trial compares four treatments. The ANOVA F-test can be used to assess whether any of the … Read More

What is ANOVA – Analysis of variance?

ANOVA -Analysis of variance is a form of statistical hypothesis testing used in the analysis of experimental data. A test result is called statistically significant if it is deemed unlikely to have occurred by chance, assuming the truth of the null hypothesis. A statistically significant result, when a probability (p-value) … Read More

What is ANCOVA – Analysis of covariance?

ANCOVA (Analysis of covariance) is a general linear model which blends ANOVA and regression. ANCOVA evaluates whether population means of a dependent variable (DV) are equal across levels of a categorical independent variable (IV) often called a treatment, while statistically controlling for the effects of other continuous variables that are … Read More