What is Autoencoder?

Autoencoder is an artificial neural network used for unsupervised learning of efficient codings. The aim of an autoencoder is to learn a representation (encoding) for a set of data, typically for the purpose of dimensionality reduction. Recently, the autoencoder concept has become more widely used for learning generative models of data. the simplest form of an autoencoder is a feedforward, … Read more

What is AUC – Area Under the Curve?

AUC stands for the Area Under the Curve. Technically, it can be used for the area under any number of curves that are used to measure the performance of a model, for example, it could be used for the area under a precision-recall curve. However, when not otherwise specified, AUC is almost always taken to mean the area under the … Read more

What is ANOVA F-test?

Anova F-test in a one-way analysis of variance is used to assess whether the expected values of a quantitative variable within several pre-defined groups differ from each other. For example, suppose that a medical trial compares four treatments. The ANOVA F-test can be used to assess whether any of the treatments is on average superior, or inferior, to the others … Read more

What is ANOVA – Analysis of variance?

ANOVA -Analysis of variance is a form of statistical hypothesis testing used in the analysis of experimental data. A test result is called statistically significant if it is deemed unlikely to have occurred by chance, assuming the truth of the null hypothesis. A statistically significant result, when a probability (p-value) is less than a threshold (significance level), justifies the rejection … Read more

What is ANCOVA – Analysis of covariance?

ANCOVA (Analysis of covariance) is a general linear model which blends ANOVA and regression. ANCOVA evaluates whether population means of a dependent variable (DV) are equal across levels of a categorical independent variable (IV) often called a treatment, while statistically controlling for the effects of other continuous variables that are not of primary interest, known as covariates (CV) or nuisance … Read more

What is Alternative Hypothesis (H1)?

Alternative Hypothesis (H1) is a way of referring to the alternative hypothesis in a scientific experiment or business process improvement initiative. While the null hypothesis (H0) in any experiment or research project is that the connection or conclusion suggested by the experiment is false, the alternative hypothesis (H1) is always the assertion that there is a meaningful connection to be … Read more

What is A/B Testing

A/B Testing (also known as split testing or bucket testing) is a method of comparing two versions of a web page or app against each other to determine which one performs better. AB testing is essentially an experiment where two or more variants of a page are shown to users at random, and statistical analysis is used to determine which … Read more

What is 80/20 rule – Pareto rule?

The 80-20 rule (Pareto rule) is a rule of thumb that states that 80% of outcomes can be attributed to 20% of all causes for a given event. In business, the 80-20 is often used to point out that 80% of a company’s revenue is generated by 20% of its total customers. Therefore, the rule is used to help managers … Read more

Numerai – deep learning example code.

In a previous post on Numerai, I have described very basic code to get into a world of machine learning competitions. This one will be a continuation, so if you haven’t read it I recommend to do it- here. In this post, we will add little more complexity to the whole process. We will split out 20% of training data … Read more